Paper 1: Cycling as a Service assessed from a combined business-model and transitions perspective
My first paper has been published in the journal Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions and is available at DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2019.09.001.
Cycling-based mobility services or ‘Cycling as a Service’ (CaaS) have recently expanded in number and scale in the Netherlands. In contrast to the contexts of most other CaaS studies to date, cycling has a high overall modal share and relatively strong institutions in the Dutch context. However, these supportive features have not translated into straightforward success for CaaS providers. Instead, responses to CaaS providers have varied widely, from tolerance to opposition. In this study we employ a combined business model and transition perspective to investigate this variation and its implications for CaaS in Dutch urban mobility systems. We present a typology of value propositions derived from business models and analyse it using an adaptation of Hoogma’s fit-and-stretch framework for strategies in emerging niches. CaaS value propositions and their technology choices and design are classified in terms of this framework, and their transitions potential analysed. Our findings clarify the strategies used by niche actors to enter into and operate within established cycling regimes.
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